October is here. Pumpkin spice, sweatshirts on cool mornings and fall color hinting in the hills. It is shaping up to be an awesome fall and we couldn’t be more excited. What better time to be outside putting the garden to bed when the air is crisp and invigorating. Yes, you can have a winter garden, but the summer one needs a rest, so here are your chores for October.
Buy Bulbs, Plant Bulbs
1. Buy bulbs, plant bulbs. You can plant bulbs now through November, as long as the soil is workable, but buy them now. Bulbs sell out fast. Store them in a cool, dry and somewhat dark place until ready for planting. The chilling times for different bulbs are listed below. For a pdf on forcing bulbs, click here.
Chilling and Blooming Times For Bulbs
Note: Amaryllis and Paperwhites do not require a chilling period, just pot them up and look for blooms 4+ weeks later. Put them on your calendar now as the holidays are coming up soon.
Daffodils: 12-15 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Tulips: 10-16 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Crocus: 8-15 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Grape hyacinth: 8-15 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Iris reticulata: 13-15 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Snowdrop (Galanthus): 15 weeks of chilling; 2 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Hyacinth: 12-15 weeks of chilling; 2-3 weeks to bloom after chilling.
Weed, Weed, Weed
2. Weed, Weed, Weed. This chore always makes the list. Consider it a given. Many weeds are going to seed now and ousting them before that happens is crucial. If time is an issue, try to remove the seed heads with a sharp pair of dead headers, eliminating seed for next year’s weeds. Check out the Weed Science Society of America’s online site and Rutger’s Weed Gallery. Both great resources for learning about weeds, especially weed identification. For more information on weeds you should keep, read here. (Yes, I said keep.)
Clean up Perennials and Sickly Plants
3. Clean up sickly plants and perennials that are beginning to die back. Perennial flowers amd foilage plants are rarely evergreen (there are exceptions). It is the root that is perennial, not the shoots. Cut perennials completely back as they begin to yellow. You’ll see shoots emerge next spring. If you’re thinking, I don’t know what a perennial is, in this case, think hosta, Shasta daisies, echinacea, agastache and so forth.
Rake up sickly plant material and dispose of it. Unhealthy plant material is harboring ground for next season’s diseases and pests. We’re cleaning up now for healthier plants next year. Don’t leave debris around the plants, but rake it away and dispose.
September is the best month for dividing perennials but they can still be done in early October. Here’s the blog on how to divide perennials.
Gather the Leaves
4. Gather the leaves. When the leaves start falling, don’t give them to your municipality. Instead, gather them up and work them into the garden beds. Leaves contain 2x the mineral content of manure, are organic roughage–adding them to the soil improves drainage and aeration–and they serve as food for beneficial microbes. They’re also good food for compost. Leaving them on the grass all winter kills the grass, and it leaches the good stuff out of leaves. Instead, rake, and put your natural resources to work for you in your garden.
You have a couple of options.
Rake into a pile, and run the lawn mower over them a few times–the inexpensive way–or purchase a leaf shredder. After shredding, mulch the garden beds with the leaves. Raking the leaves directly onto the beds without shredding takes much longer for leaves to break down and some leaves mat together not allowing air circulation and water to get through.
Make a leaf mold by putting leaves into a leaf bag, dousing the leaves with water and punching a few holes in the bag. The leaves break down to nice, crumbly, organic food for your soil. For more information on how to use your leaves and make leaf mold, click here.
For great reading on practicing a more ecological approach to your leaves and landscape, Doug Tallamy’s book, Nature’s Best Hope is a defintie winter read.
Clean Up the Vegetable Garden
5. The vegetable garden. Remove all spent and diseased plant material from the garden. Tomatoes that suffered tomato blight should be pulled up, bagged up and thrown away. Consider planting a cover crop for winter. Use your leaves in the vegetable beds, too. Improving the soil is always the goal for any gardener. Harvest all your herbs and late summer crops before a freeze gets them and remember that now is a good time to plant garlic.
Skip the Pruning
6. Forget the pruning, except lightly. Fall is not the time to prune with the exception of light pruning if needed. Pruning pushes out new growth which doesn’t have time to harden off, and can lead to winter dieback. But, do prune out the dead/diseased/dying/damaged wood (a perfect harboring places for pests and diseases), or anything that needs stabilizing (i.e., long branches that could get whipped around in the winter wind). For pruning information and when to prune, click here.
Get the houseplants Inside
7. Bring the tropicals indoors. Tropicals won’t show immediate damage unless exposed to frost or freeze. However, extended exposure to temperatures in the 40’s can lower their resistance to pest and disease. Have them acclimated to indoors by the time we’re experiencing consistent nighttime temperatures in the upper 40’s. Here’s the blog on the migrating houseplants back indoors.
A Final Review
8. Gardener Review: How did you do? What worked in the garden and what didn’t? Were some things fabulous but impractical? What about those shade trees you planted years ago that are finally shading the house, and maybe the full sun perennial beds? Gardens are not static. They’re organic, evolving spaces, which is what keeps us gardeners intrigued. So make plans for next year.
Fall is a great time to plant. Check out this video by Jon Merrill for planting.
Last Minute Items
Clean and store outdoor containers. Here’s the how to store your outdoor pots for the winter. If you’re still feeling creative and want to do some winter container gardening, here are some tips for that.
Clean out bird feeders and bird houses. Use a little soap and warm water and rinse well, allowing feeders to completely dry. It will help reduce potential diseases passed between birds.
Clean, sharpen and store tools.
Cinthia Milner is the garden coach, and blog writer for B.B. Barns Garden Center.
BB Barns Garden Center serves all of Western North Carolina, upstate South Carolina, and Tennessee.